High yields of grapes per hectare are undesirable in modern viticulture and winemaking, given that with increasing yields, the quality of grapes decreases, and thus the quality of wine. The importance of controlled reduction of yield on wine quality is especially evident in most indigenous and regional grape varieties that are genetically high-yielding, so for the production of quality grapes and wine and achieving better competitiveness of producers, strict yield control is recommended. The best and safest way to constantly maintain lower yields and obtain high quality wine is to regulate the production of grapes and wine through a system of geographical origin, where it is necessary to limit the maximum yields of grapes. Such low yields, controlled in the process of annual verification of the fulfillment of wine production conditions, are ensured through a system of protection, and then controls of wine production with protected designations of origin, ie protected geographical indications.
In order to protect geographical indications according to the same common principles, as well as the protection of EU wine labels from third countries, the European Union has introduced a PDO / PGI system of geographical origin for wines. The geographical origin of the wine aims to promote local areas and wines as a unique product, and thus to acquire conditions for further rural development of the areas from which the given wines with geographical origin originate. This allows for better competitiveness and a higher price for wines bearing known geographical indications.
Based on that, wine producers from EU member states, as well as from third countries, try to protect as many geographical indications as possible, first at the national level, and then at the EU level. Montenegro has harmonized the legislation (excluding the new regulations from 2019) for quality policy, ie geographical origin with the PDO / PGI system in the European Union. Currently, seven designations of wine origin are protected in Montenegro: “Crmnica”, “Podgorica subregion”, “Ulcinj subregion”, “Boka Kotorska”, “Nudo”, “Katunska nahija” and “Bjelopavlići”, as well as two geographical indications wines, namely: “Montenegrin Basin of Skadar Lake” and “Montenegrin Coast”. Such a large number of designations of origin, ie geographical indications registered in recent times is a great success for Montenegrin viticulture and winemaking and is a prerequisite for significant promotion of Montenegro. However, although EU-level registration is underway for some labels, currently no new designation of origin or geographical indication for wines is registered at EU level and wines are not yet certified, which is why Montenegrin wines are still not sufficiently recognizable as high quality wines on the EU market.
Extracted and reworked from the document: “Report on BPs on quality schemes and consumer Health in Montenegro”. The report is one of the deliverables under the activity ” Exchange and knowledge transferring of Best practices on quality schemes and consumer health ” WPT1 ”Improving the coss-border framework conditions for the valorization of the agri-food and fisheries value-chain” .